Analysis and Evaluation of Frameworks and Theories

Analysis and Evaluation of Frameworks and Theories

Theory analysis is particularly helpful in research because it provides a clear idea of the form and structure of the theory in addition to the relevance of content, and inconsistencies and gaps present. The ‘missing links’ or inconsistencies are fruitful sources of new research ideas. They also point to the next hypotheses that need to be tested.
—Walker and Avant, 2011, p. 206

Nurse scientists often find that examining the literature is a productive way to see how existing frameworks and theories have been applied in other research studies. By engaging in this process, they may gain insights about a particular framework or theory, be able to identify gaps in research, or uncover new questions they are eager to explore. Analysis and Evaluation of Frameworks and Theories

In this Discussion, you analyze existing frameworks/theories using the procedure proposed by Walker and Avant. Your analysis should provide an objective understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of each framework or theory. This, in turn, should enable you to evaluate whether the framework/theory is useful for the purposes of your theoretical foundation for a program of research. Analysis and Evaluation of Frameworks and Theories

To prepare

  • Review the information that Dr. Hathaway presents in the Week 1 media program, “Theoretical Foundation for Research,” regarding the phases of theory development and the similarities and differences between frameworks and theories.
  • Search the literature and identify two frameworks/theories that may be useful for investigating your phenomenon of interest. Analysis and Evaluation of Frameworks and Theories
  • Review the procedure for theory analysis presented in Chapter 12 of Walker and Avant (2011). Apply these steps to each framework/theory you have selected and identify the strengths and weaknesses of each framework/theory. Determine whether additional development or refinement is needed (i.e., for each framework, identify which aspects would require further research in order for it to meet the requirements of a theory).
  • Evaluate the value of each framework/theory for addressing your phenomenon. Determine which framework/theory has the most potential for use as part of your theoretical foundation of your research.
  • Think about any questions you have related to theory analysis and evaluation. Analysis and Evaluation of Frameworks and Theories

By Day 3

Post a description of the two frameworks/theories you analyzed and evaluated, and explain why each is considered either a framework or a theory. For framework(s) you have selected, explain which aspects would require further research to meet the requirements of a theory. Explain why one has the most potential for use in your theoretical foundation for research, noting its strengths and weaknesses. Also pose any questions that have arisen through your examination of frameworks/theories. Analysis and Evaluation of Frameworks and Theories

In this discussion, the differences between theory and framework must be considered. In this week’s readings, the variances at times appear subtle. For example, frameworks provide the direction that the research takes where theory reveals relationships between the concepts in the phenomenon of

The two frameworks that were analyzed for this writer’s phenomena of interest (POI), which is motivation that leads to health promotion behaviors and adherence to those interventions, are King’s Goal Attainment Theory and the Health Belief Model (HBM). In King’s Goal Attainment Theory, the basis is that the nurse and patient come together to set goals and act together to attain those goals (Araujo et al., 2018).  In the theory Health Belief Model, the assumptions are that the health seeking behaviors of the person are influenced by perception of a threat to health and the value associated with reducing the threat (Pribadi & Devy, 2020).  Analysis and Evaluation of Frameworks and Theories

The Health Behavior Model (HBM) applies directly to the research questions that this writer has in relation to why a person does or does not chose health promotion.  The HBM is a borrowed theory as it was derived from social science and has been applied to nursing situations. Strengths of the theory include the application to nursing care and literature associated with outcomes, and addresses perceptions that impact the value of intervening to produce health (Ampofo et al., 2020). Weaknesses are cited as being a lack of acknowledgement to social or economic factors that can serve as external threats to the validity of findings (Luquis & Kensinger, 2019).

In reviewing this topic, other considerations come to mind, such as how to mitigate the weaknesses and when found, does this impact the application? For example, in finding the possible threats to external validity with this theory, does a secondary theory fill in that gap or is it that researcher is now aware of the risks and considers this in conducting the research. Is it possible to find a theory that perfectly meets the research while maintaining original thought and staying true to the questions posed or does this alter the trajectory and thus the methods?  Analysis and Evaluation of Frameworks and Theories


Ampafo, A., et al., (2020). A cross-sectional study of barriers to cervical cancer screening uptake

in Ghana: An application of the Health Belief Model. Plos ONE. 15(4), 1-16.

doi: 10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_220_18 Analysis and Evaluation of Frameworks and Theories

Araujo, S., et. al., (2018). Nursing care to patients with diabetes based on Kings’ theory.


National Library of Medicine. 71(3), 1092-1098.  doi:  10.1590/0034-7167-2016-0268

Luquis, R.,  &  Kensinger, W. (2019) Applying the Health Belief Model to assess prevention

services among young adults, International Journal of Health Promotion and Education, 57:1, 37-47, doi:  10.1080/14635240.2018.1549958 Analysis and Evaluation of Frameworks and Theories

McEwin, M., & Wills, E. M. (2019) Theoretical basis for nursing (5th ed.) Wolters Kluwer


Pribadi, E. & Devy, S. (2020). Application of the health belief model on the intention to stop

Smoking behavior among young adult women. Journal of Public Health Research. 9(2),


Bottom of Form


Pender’s model includes “major concepts of characteristics and experiences of individuals (prior behaviors and personal influences), behavior-specific perceptions and influences (perceived benefits of action, barriers to action, and self-efficacy, activity-related affect, and interpersonal and situational influences), and behavioral outcomes (commitment to a plan of action, immediate competing demands and preferences, and health promoting behavior) (McEwen and Wills, 2019, p, 229).”  Where does your concept of motivation come into play?  Is it a possible barrier to action or an activity related affect or situational influence? Analysis and Evaluation of Frameworks and Theories

Pender’s model is considered a middle-range theory.  It is suggested the that researchers prefer to use middle-range theories because they are better for formulating hypotheses and applicable to certain patient populations (McEwin & Wills, 2019).   If you had to pose a hypothesis, based your POI and Pender’s model, what might that be?  Middle range theories describe, explain, or predict phenomena (McEwin & Wills, 2019).  Does Pender’s model describe, explain, or predict health promotion?

I have used Pender’s model in previous research as well as the questionnaire she has developed and revised over time.  I was trying to locate the questionnaire without success.  Have you been able to access it?

McEwin, M., & Wills, E. M. (2019). Theoretical basis for nursing (5th ed.). Wolters Kluwer Health Analysis and Evaluation of Frameworks and Theories

Also check: Philosophy, Science and Nursing

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