Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is an exigency intervention intended to save a life. It is carried out on a patient whose heartbeat or breathing has gotten to a halt. Shortage of breath or the stoppage of heartbeat commonly occurs after engulfment, heart, attack, or electric shock. The procedure entails pressing of a patient’s chest and rescue breathing (Wyckoff et al., 2015). The stoppage of breath and heartbeat are hazardous. Though unpopular, the intervention successfully prevents would be deaths of patients and victims. However, the lack of knowledge on the procedure has led to numerous deaths that would otherwise have been prevented. Study shows that in countries with high training on Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, patients’ survival rates range between 20 to 57%. An example of a city with such tremendous success in the employment of the technique is Seattle. However, in countries with little education on the adorable procedure, survival rates for patients stands at 5 percent. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation


Shortage of breath or the stoppage of heartbeat commonly occurs three occasions. One of them is after engulfment or drowning. The incidences are common in swimming pools during recreation or in cases of accidental plunging into the water. The other cause for stoppage of heartbeat is heart attack (Lavonas et al., 2015). The problem can, thus, be observed in a medical facility for patients with heart problems. The other incident is electric shock. It commonly occurs in homes.

Heart diseases are common in the United States. Statistics show that about 610,000 persons die of heart attack every year in America. Further, close to 735,000 persons have a heart attack (Olasveengen et al., 2017). A different study on electric shock indicates that over 1000 people die out of electrocution on a yearly basis. Drowning is also a leading cause of deaths, particularly in children. In 2017, it accounted for 4.5 million deaths globally. From the statistics, it is clear that education on Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is vital. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

In various cases, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is carried out on patients in an out-of-hospital setting. In such cases, no specialized equipment is used (Hasselqvist-Ax et al., 2015). However, hospital setting involves the use of specialized equipment for mechanical chest compressions. The use of a cardiac defibrillator is common in medical facilities. Generally, the problem necessitates the acquisition of specialized equipment by hospitals. In-hospital resuscitation is normally high-quality compared to an out-of-hospital procedure (Kleinman et al., 2015). The reason is that the one carried out by medical practitioners follows carefully set guidelines. Further, it involves the use of specialized equipment that proves more efficient compared to the manual one. In addition, the procedure by specialists involves collaboration for improved results. Research shows that resuscitation by medical specialists often results in successes at higher rates, about 45% compared to 26% for procedures carried out by ordinary people. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

Recognizing the existence of the problem plays a major role in identifying the challenge of lack of education on resuscitation among people. To address the problem, we observe that Cardiopulmonary resuscitation education and guidelines are necessary (Travers et al., 2010). Further, it prompts nurses to acquire knowledge and fine skills on the procedure for impartation to people as part of basic first aid skills.

A proposed solution to the problem lies in widespread education on Cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The discussion makes it clear that we continue losing lives that would be saved. To reverse the trend of losing the lives, education should be offered as basic first aid training for attending cases of stoppage of heartbeat or breathing problems. It should target places with high population. Ideal targets will be institutions of learning, preferably secondary schools, colleges, and universities. The training should entail how to identify cases that warrant Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the correct manner in which to carry out chest compression and rescue breathing (Waldron et al., 2016). In general, the training should seek to impart comprehensive knowledge for saving lives through Cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation


Waldron, N., Johnson, C. E., Saul, P., Waldron, H., Chong, J. C., Hill, A. M., & Hayes, B. (2016). Development of a video-based education and process change intervention to improve advance cardiopulmonary resuscitation decision-making. BMC health services research16(1), 555.

Hasselqvist-Ax, I., Riva, G., Herlitz, J., Rosenqvist, M., Hollenberg, J., Nordberg, P., … & Karlsson, T. (2015). Early cardiopulmonary resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. New England Journal of Medicine372(24), 2307-2315.

Kleinman, M. E., Brennan, E. E., Goldberger, Z. D., Swor, R. A., Terry, M., Bobrow, B. J., … & Rea, T. (2015). Part 5: adult basic life support and cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality: 2015 American Heart Association guidelines update for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. Circulation132(18_suppl_2), S414-S435. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

Lavonas, E. J., Drennan, I. R., Gabrielli, A., Heffner, A. C., Hoyte, C. O., Orkin, A. M., … & Donnino, M. W. (2015). Part 10: special circumstances of resuscitation: 2015 American Heart Association guidelines update for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. Circulation132(18_suppl_2), S501-S518.

Olasveengen, T. M., de Caen, A. R., Mancini, M. E., Maconochie, I. K., Aickin, R., Atkins, D. L., … & Chung, S. P. (2017). 2017 International consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science with treatment recommendations summary. Circulation136(23), e424-e440.

Soar, J., Nolan, J. P., Böttiger, B. W., Perkins, G. D., Lott, C., Carli, P., … & Sunde, K. (2015). European resuscitation council guidelines for resuscitation 2015: section 3. Adult advanced life supportResuscitation95, 100-147.

Travers, A. H., Rea, T. D., Bobrow, B. J., Edelson, D. P., Berg, R. A., Sayre, M. R., … & Swor, R. A. (2010). Part 4: CPR overview: 2010 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. Circulation122(18_suppl_3), S676-S684. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

Wenzel, V., Krismer, A. C., Arntz, H. R., Sitter, H., Stadlbauer, K. H., & Lindner, K. H. (2004). A comparison of vasopressin and epinephrine for out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation. New England Journal of Medicine350(2), 105-113.

Wyckoff, M. H., Aziz, K., Escobedo, M. B., Kapadia, V. S., Kattwinkel, J., Perlman, J. M., … & Zaichkin, J. G. (2015). Part 13: neonatal resuscitation: 2015 American Heart Association guidelines update for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. Circulation132(18_suppl_2), S543-S560 Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

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