Cultural Competence

Cultural Competence

1) Cultural competence and diversity are often considered to have the same meaning in healthcare facilities. What is the difference between these two terms and their applicability in terms of healthcare professionals in various healthcare settings?

2) Explain the unique circumstances under which the ancestors of most Black/African American people arrived in the Americas. Why is it important for health service professionals to understand this history?Cultural Competence

3) Is Hispanic a racial or ethnic category? Explain. How might this impact the status of the African/Black group, for example, in terms of whether it is the largest or second largest minority group?

4) List the racial categories based on the OMB classification in the United States. Explain the geographic origins of the people designated for each of the categories. Why is it important for health professionals to understand cultural differences among and between groups?

5) A physical therapy office in “Little Haiti” in Miami, Florida is closed due to lack of funds. All patients’ appointments are routed to a nearby hospital’s physical therapy department in which the predominant population served is Cuban. List and describe a minimum some steps you believe the department has to take to meet the needs of the patients from a culturally competent prospective. Cultural Competence

Chapter 1 Introduction to Multicultural Health Key Concepts and Terms Diversity Within the United States Cultural Adaptation Health Disparities Causes of Health Disparities Legal Protections for Ethnic Minorities Personal Health Decisions Ethical Considerations Summary Review Activity Case Study References

Chapter 2 Theories and Models Related to Multicultural Health Theories of Health and Illness Pathways to Care Cultural Competence Promoting Cultural Competence Summary Review Activity

Case Study References

Chapter 3 Worldview and Health Decisions Worldview Worldview and Medical Decisions Worldview and Response to Illness Summary Review Activity Case Study References Cultural Competence

Chapter 4 Complementary and Alternative Medicine History of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Complementary and Alternative Health Care Modalities Laws Affecting Cultural Practices and Health Summary Review Activity Case Study References Cultural Competence

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Chapter 5 Religion, Rituals, and Health Religion in the United States Religion and Health Behaviors Religion and Health Outcomes Religion and Well-Being Rituals Summary Review Activity Case Study References

Chapter 6 Communication and Health Promotion in Diverse Societies Health Communication Delivering Your Health Message Cultural Competence

Printed Materials Public Health Programs Evaluating Your Multicultural Health Program Summary Review Activity Case Study References

UNIT II Specific Cultural Groups

Chapter 7 Hispanic and Latino American Populations Introduction Terminology History of Hispanics in the United States Hispanics in the United States General Philosophy About Disease Prevention and Health Maintenance Healing Traditions, Healers, and Healing Aids Behavioral Risk Factors and Common Health Problems Considerations for Health Promotion and Program Planning Tips for Working With the Hispanic Population Summary Review Activity Case Study References

Chapter 8 American Indian and Alaskan Native Populations Introduction Terminology History of American Indians and Alaska Natives in the United States American Indian and Alaskan Native Populations in the United States American Indian and Alaskan Native General Philosophy About Disease Prevention and Health Maintenance Healing Traditions, Healers, and Healing Aids Behavior Risk Factors and Prevalent Health Problems Considerations for Health Promotion and Program Planning Tips for Working With American Indian and Alaskan Native Populations Cultural Competence

Summary Review Activity Case Study References

Chapter 9 African American Populations Introduction Terminology History of African Americans in the United States African Americans in the United States General Philosophy About Disease Prevention and Health Maintenance Healing Traditions Behavior Risk Factors and Prevalent Health Problems Considerations for Health Promotion and Program Planning Tips for Working With the African American Population Summary Review Activity Case Study References

Chapter 10 Asian American Populations Introduction Terminology History of Asian Americans in the United States Asian Americans in the United States General Philosophy About Disease Prevention and Health Maintenance Healing Traditions, Healers, and Healing Aids Behavioral Risk Factors and Common Health Problems Considerations for Health Promotion and Program Planning Tips for Working With the Asian American Population Summary Review Activities Case Study References Cultural Competence

Chapter 11 European and Mediterranean American Populations Introduction Terminology History of European and Mediterranean Americans in the United States European and Mediterranean Americans in the United States General Philosophy About Disease Prevention and Health Maintenance History, Healing Practices, and Risk Factors for Three Subcultures Behavior Risk Factors and Prevalent Health Problems for European and Mediterranean Americans Tips for Working With European and Mediterranean American Populations Summary Review Activity Case Studies References Cultural Competence

Chapter 12 Nonethnic Cultures Introduction Introduction to the “ Culture of People Suffering Discrimination” History of Gay Americans in the United States Introduction to People With Disabilities Introduction to the Culture of Commerce Consumers Farmworkers Introduction to People Who Are Recent Immigrants or Refugees Summary Review Activities Case Study References

UNIT III Looking Ahead

Chapter 13 Closing the Gap: Strategies for Eliminating Health Disparities

Strategies for Reducing or Eliminating Health Disparities Summary

Review Activities Case Study References Cultural Competence

Glossary

Index

Dedication

To Gary and Samantha, for creating countless hours of laughter—lr

To Sarah—dg

Preface

Your mind is like a parachute . . . it functions only when open. ~ Author unknown

Health care professionals work in a diverse society that presents both opportunities and challenges, so being culturally competent is essential to their role. Although knowing about every culture is not possible, having an understanding of various cultures can improve effectiveness. Multicultural Health provides an introduction and overview to some of the major cultural variations related to health. Cultural Competence

Throughout this text, those engaged in health care can acquire knowledge necessary to improve their effectiveness when working with diverse groups, regardless of the predominant culture of the community in which they live or work. The content of this book is useful when working in the field on both individual and community levels. It serves as a guide to the concepts and theories related to cultural issues in health and as a primer on health issues and practices specific to certain cultures and ethnic groups Cultural Competence .

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