Discussion critique

Discussion critique

  • Please critique your peers’ works, such as purpose, concepts, assumptions, and theory’s implications for nursing practice, nursing education, and nursing research.  Does each group use concepts and the conceptual framework/theoretical framework/model of the theory to guide the nursing implications?
  • Discuss theory applications from their selected articles.
  • Please provide suggestions or opportunities for improvement.
  • Ask a challenge question to encourage your peers’ participations and critical thinking, for example a question about a unique situation and theory’s application, such as infection prevention.
  • Critique the packet of materials and APA format. Discussion critique

Patricia Benner: Novice to Expert Skills Acquisition Model


Jenna Cook, Roshani Patel, Sherley Thervil, Brandie Turner, Lissette Valcarcel


Week 4 Group project

Patricia Benner

Born in Hampton, Virginia Discussion critique

BSN 1964 Pasadena College

MSN 1970 University of California, San Francisco

PhD 1982 University of California, Berkeley

Dissertation published in 1984

Born in Hampton, Virginia

Lived in California during childhood Discussion critique

Graduated from Pasadena College in 1964 with Bachelors in Nursing

Master degree in nursing with significance in medical surgical nursing from University of California, San Francisco 1970.

PhD in stress, coping, and health–1982 at the University of California, Berkeley

Her dissertation published in 1984


Alligood, M. R. (2014). Nursing Theorists and Their Work (8th ed.). Retrieved from https://www.thecampuscommon.com/library/ezproxy/ticketdemocs.asp?sch=suo&turl=http://search.ebscohost.com.southuniversity.libproxy.edmc.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=1105475&site=eds-live Discussion critique


Charge nurse in the CCU

ICU Nurse

Research Associate

Research Assistant

Project Director

Research and teaching Discussion critique

Charge nurse in the Coronary Care Unit at the Kansas City General Hospital.

Intensive Care Nurse at Stanford University Hospital and Medical Center

Research Associate at the University of California.

Research Assistant to Richard S. Lazarus at the University of California at Berkeley.

Project Director at the San Francisco Consortium/University of San Francisco.

Since 1982, Benner has been working in research and teaching at the University of California at San Francisco School of Nursing. Discussion critique


Petiprin, A. (2016). Patricia Benner Novice to Expert – Nursing Theorist Biography and Career of Patricia Benner. Retrieved from http://www.nursing-theory.org/nursing-theorists/Patricia-Benner.php


Awards & Recognition

American Journal of Nursing Book of the Year

1985 American Academy of Nursing.

1990 Excellence in Nursing Research and Nursing Education

1994 Royal College of Nursing, United Kingdom.

2004 Pioneering Spirit Award

2010 NLN Excellence in Leadership Award Discussion critique

NLN President’s Award for Creativity and Innovation

2011 American Academy of Nursing: Living Legend

American Journal of Nursing Book of the Year in 1984, 1989, 1996 and 1999 for From Novice to Expert.

1985 Inducted into the American Academy of Nursing.

1990 Excellence in Nursing Research and Excellence in Nursing Education.

1994 Honorary Fellow in the Royal College of Nursing, United Kingdom.

2004 American Association of Critical Care Nurses Pioneering Spirit Award. Discussion critique

2010: NLN Excellence in Leadership Award for Nursing Education & NLN President’s Award for Creativity and Innovation in Nursing Education.

2011, the American Academy of Nursing honored Patricia Benner as a Living Legend.


Alligood, M. R. (2014). Nursing Theorists and Their Work (8th ed.). Retrieved from https://www.thecampuscommon.com/library/ezproxy/ticketdemocs.asp?sch=suo&turl=http://search.ebscohost.com.southuniversity.libproxy.edmc.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=1105475&site=eds-live. Accessed November 09, 2018


Novice to Expert Theory

Useful framework for assessing professional growth.

Nurses develop skills and understanding of patient care over time

Does not focus on how to be a nurses

Focuses how nurses acquire knowledge Discussion critique

Dr. Patricia Benner’s model is one of the most useful frameworks for assessing nurses’ needs at different stages of professional growth.

The Novice to Expert Nursing Theory proposes that expert nurses develop skills and understanding of patient care over time through a proper educational background as well as a multitude of experiences.

Benner’s theory does not focus on how to be a nurses, rather on how nurses acquire knowledge – one could gain knowledge and skills of ‘knowing how’, without ever learning the theory of ‘knowing that’ (Petiprin, 2016).

The framework for nursing theory development begins with four metaparadigms concepts.


Petiprin, A. (2016). Patricia Benner Novice to Expert – Nursing Theorist Biography and Career of Patricia Benner. Retrieved from http://www.nursing-theory.org/nursing-theorists/Patricia-Benner.php Discussion critique


Four Metaparadigms


A self interpreting being


Situation conveying a social environment


A concept that can be assessed


Formal education base coupled with experience Discussion critique

Person: Benner and Wrubel (1989) view the human being as the person who is influenced with four major role aspects including 1) situation, 2) body, 3) personal concerns, and 4) temporality (as cited by Alligood, 2014). The summation of these four role aspects signifies the make up the person. Benner and Wrubel (1989) characterize the person as a self-interpreting being and in the role of living life becomes a much more defined being (as cited by Alligood, 2014).

Environment: Benner and Wrubel (1989) prefer the term situation rather than environment, because situation conveys a social environment with social definition and meaningfulness (as cited by Alligood, 2014). This is defined further upon the person’s perception and responsiveness of the situation including all interactions and interpretations.

Health: Benner and Wrubel (1989) characterize health as a computation of what can be assessed (as cited by Alligood, 2014). Health is not just viewed as the mere absence of an ailment but rather the entire human experience of wholeness. Furthermore, there is a clear distinction of disease in that a person may not actually experience the actual illness or symptoms resulting from the disease.

Nursing: Benner and Wrubel (1989) defines nursing as a caring relationship promoting a sense of connection and interest (as cited by Alligood, 2014). Nurses are given the authority of improving their skills on patient care as they continue through their practice by means of a formal education base coupled with experience. Nurses are guided by ethics and responsibility to deliver a caring relationship. Discussion critique


Alligood, M. R. (2014). Nursing Theorists and Their Work (Vol. 8 edition). St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby. Retrieved from https://www.thecampuscommon.com/library/ezproxy/ticketdemocs.asp?sch=suo&turl=http://search.ebscohost.com.southuniversity.libproxy.edmc.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=1105475&site=eds-live.


Additional Concept: Skill Acquisition

Stage 1 Novice

Stage 2 Advanced Beginner Discussion critique

Stage 3 Competent

Stage 4 Proficient

Stage 5 Expert

Figure 1

Detailed Description of Acquisitions Model


The Dreyfus Model of Skill Acquisition was used as a theoretical framework for the stages of clinical competence, described by Patricia Benner. This model focuses on wisdom gained through a variety of experiences and exposure to distinct situations (Benner, 1984). This model illustrates the journey from novice to expert in a trajectory fashion the highest level is exhibits flexibility and adaptable performance (Lyon, 2015). The stages of skill level include novice, advanced beginner, competent, proficient and expert. As performance base skills increases with education and experience, Patricia Benner’s application of the Dreyfus Model becomes very practical to nursing practice (Benner, 1982). This model considers the learner regarding their engagement in the situation and commitment level (Dreyfus, 1986). The objective of the Skill Acquisition Model is to distinguish the levels from novice to expert (Benner, 1982). Discussion critique

Skill Acquisition: Five stages are outlined in Benner’s Model as she uses the Dreyfus Model as a foundation of her work. The Dreyfus model, described by brothers Stuart and Hubert Dreyfus, is based on the observations of chess players, air force pilots, army commanders and tank drivers. The Dreyfus brothers believed that learning through experience as well as situation-based was comparable to that of a student going through the learning processes (Petiprin, 2016).

Stage 1: Novice: In this stage there is no background experience of the situation in which the person is involved. This level generally applies to students of nursing. However, Benner has suggested that nurses with an expertise in one area of practice may be classified at a novice level in another practice (as cited by Alligood, 2014). Additionally, novices have an undeveloped ability to forecast what may occur in a particular patient situation (Petiprin, 2016).

Stage 2: Advanced Beginner: New graduates entering their first jobs would be classified in this stage. They have an understanding of textbook knowledge but may lack in the in-depth experience bringing knowledge (Petiprin, 2016). Benner states that there is a measure of acceptable performance however certain situations may need the involvement of a supervisor or mentor for clarification (as cited by Alligood, 2014). Benner adds that advanced beginners need assistance in establishing priorities because they are just learning to understand their clinical practice (Benner, 1982). Benner (1992) further adds that the advanced beginner continues to rely on preceptors or mentors as they feel highly accountable for managing patient care (as cited by Alligood, 2014). Discussion critique

Stage 3: Competent: In this stage, there is some level of accomplishment in organizing task skills and advanced planning however there is a lack of the speed and flexibility. Competent nurses are able to react to clinical situations more quickly and accurately and have the ability to recognize patterns in clinical practice (Petiprin, 2016). Competence is achieved when the nurse begins to foresee actions and establish long term goal planning (Benner, 1982).

Stage 4 Proficient: There is a demonstration of skilled responses to clinical situations and based on those situations the nurse has the ability to recognize and implement (Alligood, 2014). At this level, nurses have the ability to view the situation as a whole rather than pieces. Benner characterizes that nurses in this stage learn from given experiences and are able to amend the course of action depending upon the situation (Petiprin, 2016). Benner uses the term maxim to lead the proficient nurse. Maxim is a description of experienced and skilled performances (Alligood, 2014). Discussion critique

Stage 5 Expert: Benner (1984) describes the expert who no longer requires guided rules or maxims and are able to have full connection and understanding of the situation at hand (as cited by Alligood, 2014). Benner views this stage as the ability to perceive the clinical demands and goal achievement (Petiprin, 2016). Furthermore, in the expert stage, experience is viewed as direct contact of practical situations versus just the passage of time (Benner, 1982).


Alligood, M. R. (2014). Nursing Theorists and Their Work (Vol. 8 edition). St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby. Retrieved from https://www.thecampuscommon.com/library/ezproxy/ticketdemocs.asp?sch=suo&turl=http://search.ebscohost.com.southuniversity.libproxy.edmc.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=1105475&site=eds-live

Benner, P. (1984). From novice to expert: Excellence and power in clinical nursing practice. American Journal of Nursing, 84(12), 1479. Discussion critique

Benner, P. (1982, March). From novice to expert. The American Journal of Nursing. 82(3).

Dreyfus, H. (1985). Mind over machine: The power of human intuition and expertise in the era of the computer. Basil Blackwell.

Lyon, L. J. (2015). Development of teaching expertise viewed through the Dreyfus Model of Skill Acquisition. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning,15(1), 88. doi:10.14434/josotl.v15i1.12866

Petiprin, A. (2016). From novice to expert. Nursing Theory. Retrieved from http://nursing-theory.org/nursing-theorists/Betty-Neuman.php Discussion critique.

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