Diversity And Health Assessments

Diversity And Health Assessments

May 2012, Alice Randall wrote an article for The New York Times on  the cultural factors that encouraged black women to maintain a weight  above what is considered healthy. Randall explained�from her  observations and her personal experience as a black woman�that many  African-American communities and cultures consider women who are  overweight to be more beautiful and desirable than women at a healthier  weight. As she put it, �Many black women are fat because we want to be�  (Randall, 2012).

Randall�s statements sparked a great deal of controversy and debate;  however, they emphasize an underlying reality in the healthcare field:  different populations, cultures, and groups have diverse beliefs and  practices that impact their health. Nurses and healthcare professionals  should be aware of this reality and adapt their health assessment  techniques and recommendations to accommodate diversity.
In this Discussion, you will consider different socioeconomic,  spiritual, lifestyle, and other cultural factors that should be taken  into considerations when building a health history for patients with  diverse backgrounds. Your Instructor will assign a case study to you for  this Discussion.

CASE STUDY:

EB is a 68-year-old black female who comes in for  follow-up of hypertension. She has glaucoma and her vision has been  worsening during the past few years. She lives alone and is prescribed  four hypertension medications (Hydralazine 50 mg PO Q8H, Metoprolol XL  200 mg PO Q12H, Lisinopril 40 mg PO daily, and HCTZ 25mg PO daily ). She  brings in her medication bottles and she has some medication bottles  from the previous year full of medications. She is missing one  medication she had been prescribed and says she may have forgotten it at  home. Her BP in clinic today is 182/99 with HR of 84.

To prepare:
� Reflect on your experiences as a nurse and on the information  provided in this week�s Learning Resources on diversity issues in health  assessments.
� By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned a case study by your  Instructor. Note: Please see the �Course Announcements� section of the  classroom for your case study assignment.
� Reflect on the specific socioeconomic, spiritual, lifestyle, and  other cultural factors related to the health of the patient assigned to  you.
� Consider how you would build a health history for the patient.  What questions would you ask, and how would you frame them to be  sensitive to the patient�s background, lifestyle, and culture? Develop  five targeted questions you would ask the patient to build his or her  health history and to assess his or her health risks.
� Think about the challenges associated with communicating with  patients from a variety of specific populations. What strategies can you  as a nurse employ to be sensitive to different cultural factors while  gathering the pertinent information?
Post an explanation of the specific socioeconomic, spiritual,  lifestyle, and other cultural factors associated with the patient you  were assigned.

Explain the issues that you would need to be sensitive to  when interacting with the patient, and why.

Provide at least five  targeted questions you would ask the patient to build his or her health  history and to assess his or her health risks.

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Required Readings

Note:  To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the  Course Materials  section of your Syllabus.

Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. (2019). Seidel’s guide to physical examination: An interprofessional approach (9th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.

· Chapter 1, “The History and Interviewing Process”  (Previously read in Week 1)

This chapter highlights history and interviewing processes. The authors explore a variety of communication techniques, professionalism, and functional assessment concepts when developing relationships with patients.

· Chapter 2, “Cultural Competency”

This chapter highlights the importance of cultural awareness when conducting health assessments. The authors explore the impact of culture on health beliefs and practices.

Dains, J. E., Baumann, L. C., & Scheibel, P. (2019). Advanced health assessment and clinical diagnosis in primary care (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.

Credit Line: Advanced Health Assessment and Clinical Diagnosis in Primary Care, 6th Edition by Dains, J.E., Baumann, L. C., & Scheibel, P. Copyright 2019 by Mosby. Reprinted by permission of Mosby via the Copyright Clearance Center.

· Chapter 2, “Evidenced-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines”

Melton, C., Graff, C., Holmes, G., Brown, L., & Bailey, J. (2014). Health literacy and asthma management among African-American adults: An interpretative phenomenological analysis. Journal of Asthma, 51(7), 703–713. doi:10.3109/02770903.2014.906605

Credit Line: Health literacy and asthma management among African-American adults: An interpretative phenomenological analysis by Melton, C., Graff, C., Holmes, G., Brown, L., & Bailey, J., in Journal of Asthma, Vol. 51/Issue 7. Copyright 2014 by Taylor & Francis, Inc. Reprinted by permission of Taylor & Francis, Inc. via the Copyright Clearance Center.

The authors of this study discuss the relationship between health literacy and health outcomes in African American patients with asthma.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). Cultural competence. Retrieved from https://npin.cdc.gov/pages/cultural-competence

This website discusses cultural competence as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Understanding the difference between cultural competence, awareness, and sensitivity can be obtained on this website.

United States Department of Human & Health Services. Office of Minority Health. (n.d.). A physician’s practical guide to culturally competent care. Retrieved June 10, 2019, from https://cccm.thinkculturalhealth.hhs.gov/

From the Office of Minority Health, this website offers CME and CEU credit and equips healthcare professionals with awareness, knowledge, and skills to better treat the increasingly diverse U.S. population they serve.

Espey, D. K., Jim, M. A., Cobb, N., Bartholomew, M., Becker, T., Haverkamp, D., & Plescia, M. (2014). Leading causes of death and all-cause mortality in American Indians and Alaska Natives. American Journal of Public Health, 104(Suppl 3), S303–S311. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.2105/AJPH.2013.301798

Note: You will access this article from the Walden Library databases.

The authors of this article present patterns and trends in all-cause mortality and leading cause of death in American Indians and Alaskan Natives.

Wannasirikul, P., Termsirikulchai, L., Sujirarat, D., Benjakul, S., & Tanasugarn, C. (2016). Health literacy, medication adherence, and blood pressure level among hypertension older adults treated at primary health care centers. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 47(1), 109–120.

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