Epidemiology assignment

Epidemiology assignment

Epidemiology is the study of the determinants, occurrence, and distribution of health and disease in a defined population. Infection is the replication of organisms in host tissue, which may cause disease. A carrier is an individual with no overt disease who harbors infectious organisms. Dissemination is the spread of the organism in the environment

There are three major links in disease occurrence: the etiologic agent, the method of transmission (by contact, by a common vehicle, or via air or a vector), and the host.

Epidemiologic Methods

Epidemiologic studies may be (1) descriptive, organizing data by time, place, and person; (2) analytic, incorporating a case-control or cohort study; or (3) experimental. Epidemiology utilizes an organized approach to problem solving by: (1) confirming the existence of an epidemic and verifying the diagnosis; (2) developing a case definition and collating data on cases; (3) analyzing data by time, place, and person; (4) developing a hypothesis; (5) conducting further studies if necessary; (6) developing and implementing control and prevention measures; (7) preparing and distributing a public report; and (8) evaluating control and preventive measures.

This chapter reviews the general concepts of epidemiology, which is the study of the determinants, occurrence, distribution, and control of health and disease in a defined population. Epidemiology is a descriptive science and includes the determination of rates, that is, the quantification of disease occurrence within a specific population. The most commonly studied rate is the attack rate: the number of cases of the disease divided by the population among whom the cases have occurred. Epidemiology can accurately describe a disease and many factors concerning its occurrence before its cause is identified. For example, Snow described many aspects of the epidemiology of cholera in the late 1840s, fully 30 years before Koch described the bacillus and Semmelweis described puerperal fever in detail in 1861 and recommended appropriate control and prevention measures a number of years before the streptococcal agent was fully described. One goal of epidemiologic studies is to define the parameters of a disease, including risk factors, in order to develop the most effective measures for control. This chapter includes a discussion of the chain of infection, the three main epidemiologic methods, and how to investigate an epidemic

Proper interpretation of disease-specific epidemiologic data requires information concerning past as well as present occurrence of the disease. An increase in the number of reported cases of a disease that is normal and expected, representing a seasonal pattern of change in host susceptibility, does not constitute an epidemic. Therefore, the regular collection, collation, analysis, and reporting of data concerning the occurrence of a disease is important to properly interpret short-term changes in occurrence.


A sensitive and specific surveillance program is important for the proper interpretation of disease occurrence data. Almost every country has a national disease surveillance program that regularly collects data on selected diseases. The quality of these programs varies, but, generally, useful data are collected that are important in developing control and prevention measures. There is an international agreement that the occurrence of three diseases—cholera, plague, and yellow fever—will be reported to the World Health Organization in Geneva, Switzerland. In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), U.S. Public Health Service, and the state health officers of all 50 states have agreed to report the occurrence of 51 diseases weekly and of another 10 diseases annually from the states to the CDC. Many states have regulations or laws that mandate reporting of these diseases and often of other diseases of specific interest to the state health department.

The methods of case reporting vary within each state. Passive reporting is one of the main methods. In such a case, physicians or personnel in clinics or hospitals report occurrences of relevant diseases by telephone, postcard, or a reporting form, usually at weekly intervals. In some instances, the report may be initiated by the public health or clinical laboratory where the etiologic agent is identified. Some diseases, such as human rabies, must be reported by telephone as soon as diagnosed. In an active surveillance program, the health authority regularly initiates the request for reporting. The local health department may call all or some health care providers at regular intervals to inquire about the occurrence of a disease or diseases. The active system may be used during an epidemic or if accurate data concerning all cases of a disease are desired.

The health care provider usually makes the initial passive report to a local authority, such as a city or county health department. This unit collates its data and sends a report to the next highest health department level, usually the state health department.

The number of cases of each reportable disease are presented weekly, via computer linkage, by the state health department to the CDC. Data are analyzed at each level to develop needed information to assist public health authorities in disease control and prevention. For some diseases, such as hepatitis, the CDC requests preparation of a separate case reporting form containing more specific details.

In addition, the CDC prepares and distributes routine reports summarizing and interpreting the analyses and providing information on epidemics and other appropriate public health matters. Most states and some county health departments also prepare and distribute their own surveillance reports. The CDC publishes Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report,which is available for a small fee from the Massachusetts Medical Society. The CDC also prepares more detailed surveillance reports for specific diseases, as well as an annual summary report, all of which can also be obtained through the Massachusetts Medical Society.

Infection is the replication of organisms in the tissue of a host; when defined in terms of infection, disease is overt clinical manifestation. In an inapparent (subclinical) infection, an immune response can occur without overt clinical disease. A carrier (colonized individual) is a person in whom organisms are present and may be multiplying, but who shows no clinical response to their presence. The carrier state may be permanent, with the organism always present; intermittent, with the organism present for various periods; or temporary, with carriage for only a brief period. Dissemination is the movement of an infectious agent from a source directly into the environment; when infection results from dissemination, the source, if an individual, is referred to as a dangerous disseminator.