Exploration of Science and Theories for Nursing
Identify a theory that uses a concept of interest that might be applied in research and nursing practice (clinical, education, or administration). The purpose of this paper is for you to describe and evaluate the theory using the following criteria. This is a professional paper in which headings, full sentences, paragraphs, correct grammar and punctuation, and correct citation of sources are required.
Introduction. Identify your concept of interest and briefly discuss why you chose that concept (explain whether it was observed in clinical practice, identified from relevant literature, or some other reason.) Identify the theory (that utilizes your concept of interest) which will be described and evaluated in this paper. Give the reader a sense of what to expect in this paper. The introduction should be one very short paragraph, and there should not be a heading for the introduction. Exploration of Science and Theories for Nursing
Theory Description. Provide a brief description of the theory using an original source or as close to the original source as possible. Include a brief discussion of the origins of the theory and the scope/level (grand, middle range, practice/situation specific) of the theory. Identify the major concepts of the theory and discuss how they are related (propositions). Pick two of the concepts, including your concept of interest, and state the theoretical definitions of these concepts. (30 points) Exploration of Science and Theories for Nursing
Application of Theory to Research. Find two published, original sources in which researchers used the theory as a framework to support their research. Briefly discuss how those researchers utilized the theory to support their research. Include in the discussion of each study the purpose of the study, how the researchers used the theory in their study, how the concept of interest was used in their study, and how the researchers operationally defined the concept of interest. (20 points)
Application of Theory to Practice. Briefly discuss how the theory might be used to support nursing practice (clinical, education, or administration). Include in the discussion the purpose of the practice application and how the concept of interest might be operationally defined in practice. Provide an example of how you might use the theoretical and operational definitions of your concept of interest in your future practice or research. Include a potential practice question based on the propositions of your theory. (20 points) Exploration of Science and Theories for Nursing
Theory Evaluation. Briefly discuss whether/how the theory appears to be accurate/valid (based on empirical testing of the theory as discussed above). Discuss generalizability of the theory. Summarize the strengths and weaknesses of the theory. Briefly discuss whether/how the theory is congruent with current nursing standards and current nursing interventions or therapeutics. Explain whether/how the theory is relevant socially and cross-culturally. Describe briefly how the theory might contribute to the discipline of nursing. (20 points)
Conclusion . Include a conclusion only if specified by your course section faculty.
Style & Format. The paper will include a title page (using specified format), 7-8 pages of text, and a reference list. It will be double-spaced, written in 12-point Times New Roman font, and have 1-inch margins. Professional and orderly presentation of ideas (precision, clarity, format, headings, grammar, spelling, & punctuation) with appropriate citation of sources in text and reference list is required. Up to 0.5 points will be deducted for each type of grammar, spelling, punctuation, or format error. (10 points) Exploration of Science and Theories for Nursing
The present study examined the symptom cluster of fatigue, pain, and depression, and its direct and indirect prediction of physical activity behavior in a sample of individuals with multiple sclerosis(MS) using a prospective research design and the Theory of Unpleasant Symptoms. The sample included 292 individuals with a definite diagnosis of MS. The participants completed self-report measures of fatigue, depression, pain, self-efficacy, and functional limitations at baseline and six months later, wore an accelerometer for seven days and completed a self-report measure of physical activity behavior. The data analysis indicated that: 1) fatigue, depression, and pain represented a symptom cluster; 2) the symptom cluster had a strong and negative predictive relationship with physical activity behavior; and 3) functional limitations, but not self-efficacy, accounted for the predictive relationship between the symptom cluster and physical activity behavior. Such findings provide preliminary support to the importance of considering symptom clusters as a meaningful correlate of physical activity behavior in persons with MS. J Pain Symptom Manage 2009;38:270e 280. Ó 2009 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published byElsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Exploration of Science and Theories for Nursing
Key Words Symptom cluster, fatigue, depression, pain, physical activity behavior, multiplesclerosis
Introduction There is accumulating evidence that physi-
cal activity behavior is associated with desirable consequences in persons with multiple sclero- sis (MS). Two recent meta-analyses have dem- onstrated that physical activity behavior is Exploration of Science and Theories for Nursing
associated with improvements in walking mo- bility1 and quality of life 2 in persons with MS. Nevertheless, there is considerable evi- dence that individuals with MS are largely sed- entary, as demonstrated by a literature review3 and a meta-analysis.4 One objective of current research has been the identification of vari- ables that correlate with physical activity behav- ior among those with MS. This is based on the assumption that such variables might serve as targets of a well-designed intervention for in- creasing physical activity behavior in this population. Symptoms are perceived indicators of change
in normal functioning, sensation, or appear- ance,5 and have been identified as a correlate of
Funded by the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke (NS054050) . Address correspondence to: Robert W. Motl, PhD, De- partment of Kinesiology and Community Health , University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 350 Freer Hall, 906 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, USA. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Accepted for publication: August 17, 2008. Exploration of Science and Theories for Nursing
Ó 2009 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
0885-3924/ 09/ $e see front matter doi:10.1016/ j.jpainsymman.2008.08.004
270 Journal of Pain and Symptom Management Vol. 38 No. 2 August 2009
physical activitybehavior among personswith MS in cross-sectional analyses. For example, one study reported that the number of symptoms ex- perienced during the past 30 days was negatively associated with physical activity behavior,6 whereas a second study reported that worsening of overall symptoms across a three-to five-year period was independently and negatively associated with self-reported levels of physical activity behavior.7 Another study reported that higher levels of overall symptoms were directly and indirectly associated with lower levels of physical activity behavior, and the indirect pathway involved difficulty walking (i.e., functional limitations8) . One final study reported that the frequency of overall symptoms and motor symptoms were directly and indirectly associated with physical activity behavior by way of self-efficacy.9 These previous studies have generally focused Exploration of Science and Theories for Nursing
on either a single dimension of overall symptoms or a single specific symptom as cross-sectional or temporally proximal correlates of physical activity behavior in MS. There are definitional, conceptual, and theoretical bases for considering a symptom cluster rather than an overall or specific symptom as a prospective or temporally distal correlate of physical activity behavior in MS.By definition, a symptom cluster represents ‘‘three or more concurrent symptoms (e.g., pain, fatigue, sleep in sufficiency) that are related to each other.’’ 10, p. 465 This definition underscores the two primary features of a symptom cluster, namely the existence of three or more symptoms and an interrelationship, either through a common etiology or statistically as a cluster or latent variable.11 Conceptually, the study of a symptom cluster recognizes that: 1) multiple symptoms of- ten occur concurrently and 2) co-occurring symptoms likely provide a better prediction of consequences (e.g., behavior, function, or quality of life) than a single symptom Exploration of Science and Theories for Nursing
Also check: Obsessive Compulsive Disorder