NURS 6521 Week 3: Cardiovascular System

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NURS 6521 Week 3: Cardiovascular System essay assignment

NURS 6521: Advanced Pharmacology | Week 3 essay assignment

Alterations of the cardiovascular system can cause serious adverse events and may lead to death when not treated in a timely and safe manner. Unfortunately, many patients with cardiovascular disorders are unaware until complications appear. Consider hypertension. An estimated 68 million people in the United States have this disorder (CDC, 2012). However, about 30 percent of these patients are not treated at all, and of those who are treated, less than 50 percent have properly controlled blood pressure levels (University of Maryland Medical Center, 2009). In clinical settings, patients often present with symptoms of hypertension and other cardiovascular disorders making it essential for you, as the advanced practice nurse, to be able to recognize these symptoms and recommend appropriate drug treatment options.

NURS 6521 Week 3: Cardiovascular System essay assignment

This week you examine the impact of changes in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes on patient drug therapy for cardiovascular disorders. You also explore ways to improve drug therapy plans for these disorders.

Learning Objectives

By the end of this week, students will:
  • Evaluate the influence of patient factors on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics processes
  • Analyze the impact of changes in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes on patient drug therapy
  • Evaluate drug therapy plans for cardiovascular disorders
  • Understand and apply key terms, concepts, and principles related to prescribing drugs to treat cardiovascular disorders

As the leading cause of death in the United States for both men and women, cardiovascular disorders account for 7 million hospitalizations per year (NCSL, 2012). This is the result of the extensive treatment and care that is often required for patients with these disorders. While the incidences of hospitalizations and death are still high, the mortality rate of cardiovascular disorders has been declining since the 1960s (CDC, 2011). Improved treatment options have contributed to this decline, as well as more knowledge on patient risk factors. As an advanced practice nurse, it is your responsibility to recommend appropriate treatment options for patients with cardiovascular disorders. To ensure the safety and effectiveness of drug therapy, advanced practice nurses must consider aspects that might influence pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes such as medical history, other drugs currently prescribed, and individual patient factors.

Consider the following case studies:

Case Study 1:

Patient AO has a history of obesity and has recently gained 9 pounds. The patient has been diagnosed with hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Drugs currently prescribed include the following:

  • Atenolol 12.5 mg daily
  • Doxazosin 8 mg daily
  • Hydralazine 10 mg qid
  • Sertraline 25 mg daily
  • Simvastatin 80 mg daily
Case Study 2:

Patient HM has a history of atrial fibrillation and a transient ischemic attack (TIA). The patient has been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and ischemic heart disease. Drugs currently prescribed include the following:

  • Warfarin 5 mg daily MWF and 2.5 mg daily T, TH, Sat, Sun
  • Aspirin 81 mg daily
  • Metformin 1000 mg po bid
  • Glyburide 10 mg bid
  • Atenolol 100 mg po daily
  • Motrin 200 mg 1–3 tablets every 6 hours as needed for pain
Case Study 3:

Patient CB has a history of strokes. The patient has been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. Drugs currently prescribed include the following:

  • Glipizide 10 mg po daily
  • HCTZ 25 mg daily
  • Atenolol 25 mg po daily
  • Hydralazine 25 mg qid
  • Simvastatin 80 mg daily
  • Verapamil 180 mg CD daily
To prepare:
  • Review this week’s media presentation on hypertension and hyperlipidemia, as well as Chapters 19 and 20 of the Arcangelo and Peterson text.
  • Select one of the three case studies, as well as one the following factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior factors.
  • Reflect on how the factor you selected might influence the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.
  • Consider how changes in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy.
  • Think about how you might improve the patient’s drug therapy plan based on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes. Reflect on whether you would modify the current drug treatment or provide an alternative treatment option for the patient.

With these thoughts in mind:

By Day 3

Post an explanation of how the factor you selected might influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in the patient from the case study you selected. Then, describe how changes in the processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy. Finally, explain how you might improve the patient’s drug therapy plan.

By Day 6

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses and respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days who selected a different case study than you did, in one or more of the following ways:

  • Provide alternative recommendations for drug treatments.
  • Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own research in the Walden Library.
  • Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research.

 

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