Pathophysiology and Nursing Management of Clients Health
It is necessary for an RN-BSN-prepared nurse to demonstrate an enhanced understanding of the pathophysiological processes of disease, the clinical manifestations and treatment protocols, and how they affect clients across the life span.
Evaluate the Health History and Medical Information for Mr. C., presented below.
Based on this information, formulate a conclusion based on your evaluation, and complete the Critical Thinking Essay assignment, as instructed below. Pathophysiology and Nursing Management of Clients Health
Health History and Medical Information
Mr. C., a 32-year-old single male, is seeking information at the outpatient center regarding possible bariatric surgery for his obesity. He currently works at a catalog telephone center. He reports that he has always been heavy, even as a small child, gaining approximately 100 pounds in the last 2-3 years. Previous medical evaluations have not indicated any metabolic diseases, but he says he has sleep apnea and high blood pressure, which he tries to control by restricting dietary sodium. Mr. C. reports increasing shortness of breath with activity, swollen ankles, and pruritus over the last 6 months. Pathophysiology and Nursing Management of Clients Health
1. Height: 68 inches; weight 134.5 kg
2. BP: 172/98, HR 88, RR 26
3. 3+ pitting edema bilateral feet and ankles
4. Fasting blood glucose: 146 mg/dL
5. Total cholesterol: 250 mg/dL
6. Triglycerides: 312 mg/dL
7. HDL: 30 mg/dL
8. Serum creatinine 1.8 mg/dL
9. BUN 32 mg/dl
Critical Thinking Essay
In 750-1,000 words, critically evaluate Mr. C.’s potential diagnosis and intervention(s). Include the following:
1. Describe the clinical manifestations present in Mr. C.
2. Describe the potential health risks for obesity that are of concern for Mr. C. Discuss whether bariatric surgery is an appropriate intervention. Pathophysiology and Nursing Management of Clients Health
3. Assess each of Mr. C.’s functional health patterns using the information given. Discuss at least five actual or potential problems can you identify from the functional health patterns and provide the rationale for each. (Functional health patterns include health-perception, health-management, nutritional, metabolic, elimination, activity-exercise, sleep-rest, cognitive-perceptual, self-perception/self-concept, role-relationship, sexuality/reproductive, coping-stress tolerance.)
4. Explain the staging of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and contributing factors to consider.
5. Consider ESRD prevention and health promotion opportunities. Describe what type of patient education should be provided to Mr. C. for prevention of future events, health restoration, and avoidance of deterioration of renal status.
6. Explain the type of resources available for ESRD patients for nonacute care and the type of multidisciplinary approach that would be beneficial for these patients. Consider aspects such as devices, transportation, living conditions, return-to-employment issues. Pathophysiology and Nursing Management of Clients Health
You are required to cite to a minimum of two sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and relevant to nursing practice.
Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide. An abstract is not required.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite.
Whitney, S. GCU. (, 2020). Elimination Complexities. https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs410v/pathophysiology-clinical-applications-for-client-health/v1.1/#/chapter/3
Whitey, S. (2018). Elimination Complexities. In Pathophysiology: Clinical Applications for Client Health. Grand Canyon University (Ed.). https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs410v/pathophysiology-clinical-applications-for-client-health/v1.1/
Read “Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate Decline and Risk of End-Stage Renal Disease in Type 2 Diabetes,” by Megumi et al., from PLOS ONE (2018). Pathophysiology and Nursing Management of Clients Health
Read “Facts About Chronic Kidney Disease,” from the A to Z Health Guide (2017), located on the National Kidney Foundation website.
Read “Acute Kidney Failure,” located on the Mayo Clinic website.
Read “Kidney Failure (Symptoms, Signs, Stages, Causes, Treatment, and Life Expectancy),” by Wedro, located on the MedicineNet website.
Assess each of Mr. C.’s functional health patterns using the information given. Discuss at
least five actual or potential problems that can you identify from the functional health
patterns and provide the rationale for each. (Functional health patterns include health-
perception, health-management, nutritional, metabolic, elimination, activity-exercise, sleep-
rest, cognitive-perceptual, self-perception/self-concept, role-relationship,
sexuality/reproductive, coping-stress tolerance.) Pathophysiology and Nursing Management of Clients Health
The different functional health patterns presented by Mr. C’s health status indicate
prevailing health issues. For example: The nutritional function can be used by caregivers to educate
on proper and healthy eating. Taking balanced diets and doing regular physical exercises will help
reduce excess weight. The metabolic patterns involve educating the client about the proper
selection of healthy food to help prevent the development of diabetes while addressing the issue
of HBP. The elimination function encompasses altering the patient’s unbeneficial behaviors in the
study and changing them with good habits like drinking plenty of water to change the bowel
pattern. The exercise function will help the patient in question deal with hyperlipidemia by
exercising regularly. The self-perception function allows the patient to have a positive outlook
about his condition. As a result, his self-esteem and image perception will change. The
sexuality/reproductive function is not covered in this assessment because the patient is single.
Explain the staging of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and contributing factors to consider. Pathophysiology and Nursing Management of Clients Health
functionality, and if the filtration process is low, it means there is a decrease in GFR. Therefore,
Kattah et al. (2017) says that the person is at the end-stage renal disease if his/her kidney cannot
perform above 10% of its standard capacity. Some of ESRD’s contributing factors are low
hemoglobin, high cholesterol, diabetes, and HBP (Collazo-Clavell, 2019).
Consider ESRD prevention and health promotion opportunities. Describe what type of
patient education should be provided to Mr. C. to prevent future events, health restoration,
and avoidance of deterioration of renal status. Pathophysiology and Nursing Management of Clients Health
It is vital to prevent and control critical health issues like ESRD. The first essential
prevention approach is to manage the ESRD contributing risk factor. The next health promotion
approach is to educate people on adopting healthy lifestyles like exercising regularly and eating
healthy diets. Lastly, individuals at high risk of developing ESRD should be identified and
screened often. In our case, Mr. C needs to be briefed by the nurse on the importance of treating
ESRD. First, a nurse should educate the client about some treatment methods such as dialysis and
kidney transplant. The patient should be educated using the teach-back method to allow him to
take charge of his condition because he will have relevant and comprehensive about their ailing
issue (Skelton et al., 2015). As a result, Mr. C will adapt to a better lifestyle, know the risk factors,
and take on appropriate measures to control the health issue (Skelton et al., 2015).
Explain the type of resources available for ESRD patients for nonacute care and the type of
multidisciplinary approach beneficial for these patients. Consider aspects such as devices,
transportation, living conditions, and return-to-employment issues. Pathophysiology and Nursing Management of Clients Health
There are numerous and accessible resources for ESRD patients. There are community
groups and multidisciplinary approaches that can offer support. Some of the stakeholders they can
contact are emergency resources, nutritionists, doctors, and nephrologists. They work in
collaboration to help provide appropriate treatment intervention to the patient. The patient must be
provided with adequate information about health promotion and necessary handling devices for
ESRD. An insured patient should require healthcare insurance to care for transport expenses as
well as living condition issues. The recovery process of patients mostly depends on the impact and
effort provided by social workers. As such, patients gain confidence in running their daily activities Pathophysiology and Nursing Management of Clients Health