Pathophysiology for the Health Professions
o integrate and build on basic concepts in support of critical thinking.
Course outcomes: This assignment enables the student to meet the following course outcomes.
CO 1: Correlate lifestyle, environmental, and other influences with changes in levels of wellness. (POs 1 and 7)
CO 2: Explain the pathophysiologic processes of select health conditions. (PO 1)
CO 3: Predict clinical manifestations and complications for select disease processes. (POs 1 and 8)
Due date: Your faculty member will inform you when this assignment is due. The Late Assignment Policy applies to this assignment. Pathophysiology for the Health Professions
Total points possible: 50 points
Preparing the assignment
· Select a pathophysiology concept (i.e., infection, mobility, perfusion, tissue integrity, cognition, intracranial regulation, hormonal regulation, glucose regulation, fluid and electrolytes, acid-base balance, cellular regulation, nutrition, gas exchange, pain, immunity, inflammation, elimination, and thermoregulation) for which you have not previously completed an active learning template (ALT). Some examples include but are not limited to Pathophysiology for the Health Professions
· Complete the three areas of the template to describe the pathophysiologic changes that occur within the body and what care the nurse may provide for clients experiencing the changes.
· Select a disease process (i.e., myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, seizure, small bowel obstruction) from the current organ system you are studying, for which you have not previously completed an ALT.
· Complete the top three boxes, the Assessment and Safety Concerns area of the form.
· Be prepared to submit, present and/or teach this concept to others, as directed by your instructor.
· In addition, complete as much of the Patient Centered Care area as you are able based on your own research and/or collaboration with your peers or faculty. Pathophysiology for the Health Professions
· Create a 1-page analysis describing how the selected Basic Concept ALT relates to the selected Systems Disorder ALT.
· Be prepared to present and/or submit your paper, as directed by your instructor.
For writing assistance, visit the Writing Center.
Please note that your instructor may provide you with additional assessments in any form to determine that you fully understand the concepts learned in the review module. Pathophysiology for the Health Professions
The following provides an example of the 1-page Analysis to help clarify the assignment guidelines.
NOT FOR STUDENT SUBMISSION
Since the largest group to experience hip fractures are older adults, the normal changes that occur with aging place them at higher risk for complications of immobility and surgical repair of the fracture (for example: decreased muscle mass, decreased bone density, suppressed immune response, and loss of muscle strength and flexibility).
Immobility after a hip fracture (and surgical repair of the break) contributes to the following undesirable changes within the body. Pathophysiology for the Health Professions
· Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurs when blood pools in the lower extremity veins, which increases the risk of pulmonary embolism and compromised circulation and oxygenation.
· Muscle atrophy contributes to orthostatic hypotension when the smooth muscles of the venous system fail to contract when the client changes from a supine to an upright position.
· Loss of appetite due to inactivity, depression, boredom, or pain can contribute to weight loss and malnutrition impacting muscle mass and delaying healing. Pathophysiology for the Health Professions
· Use of an indwelling urinary catheter increases the risk for urinary tract infection.
· Calcium loss from long bones may lead to renal calculi and osteoporosis.
· Pressure and moisture to the skin increases the risk of pressure ulcers.
· If client unable to reposition themselves in bed, skin can break down increasing the chance for infection.
· Social isolation increases the risk of delirium and disorientation.
· When supine, the weight of the chest wall limits lung expansion and contributes to atelectasis.
· Blood redistribution and fluid shifts increase the risk for pulmonary edema.
· Pooling of secretions increases the risk for pneumonia and decreased gas exchange.
· Decreased weight bearing contributes to hormone imbalances. Pathophysiology for the Health Professions
Considering the concept of mobility with the systems disorder of a hip fracture, it is evident that the older adult is most at risk for not only experiencing a hip fracture but having one or more complications of immobility due to the injury, as well.
Concept Process Assignment Guidelines
Patient-focused care should address pain management (pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic), promoting optimal respiratory status, and early movement with the help of physical therapy. As always, client safety should be incorporated into all care
~ It is assumed that students have studied anatomy and
physiology prior to commencing a pathophysiology course. Pathophysiology for the Health Professions
~ Concise, readable style includes sufficient scientific and medical terminology to help the student acquire a professional vocabulary and appropriate communica- tion skills. An effort has been made to avoid over- whelming the student with a highly technical approach or impeding the learning process in a student who comes with little scientific background.
~ The presence of numeric values within textual informa- tion often confuses students and detracts from the basic concepts being presented; therefore, specific numbers are included only when they promote understanding of a principle.
~ Suggested diagnostic tests and treatments are not individualized or necessarily complete but are pre- sented generally to assist the student’s application of the pathophysiology. They are also intended to provide students with an awareness of the impact of certain diseases on a client and of possible modifications in the individualized care required. Diagnostic tests increase student cognizance of the extent of data collection and sifting that may be necessary before making a diagnosis, as well as the importance of monitoring the course of a disease or the response to treatment. Pathophysiology for the Health Professions
~ A brief introduction to pharmacology is included in Section I and specific drugs are referred to during the discussion of certain disorders. Drugs are identified by generic name, followed by a trade name. Examples provided in the appropriate chapter are not recom- mendations, but are suggested only as frequently used representatives of a drug classification. A drug index with references to the applicable chapter is located in the appendices.
~ Information regarding adverse effects of drugs or other treatment is included when there may be potential problems such as high risk for infection or special precautions required of members of the health care team.
~ Every effort has been made to present current informa- tion and concepts simply but accurately. This content provides the practitioner in a health profession with the prerequisite knowledge to recognize and under- stand a client’s problems and the limitations and implications of certain treatment measures; to reduce exacerbating factors; to participate in preventive programs; and to be an effective member of a health care team. The student will develop a knowledge base from which to seek additional information. Individual instructors may emphasize certain aspects or topics, as is most appropriate for students in a specialty area.
In the textbook: ~ Selected additional resources are listed in the appen-
dices in Ready Reference 9. ~ Reference tables are located inside the front book cover. Pathophysiology for the Health Professions
These comprise common normal values for blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and urine; a pH scale for body fluids; a list of blood clotting factors; and diagnostic tests.
~ The chapter introducing pharmacology and therapeu- tics is limited in content, but combined with the brief references to treatments with individual disorders, is intended to complement the pathophysiology. This chapter also introduces a few traditional and non- traditional therapeutic modalities to facilitate the student’s understanding of various therapies and of the impact of diverse treatments on the patient and on care by all members of the health care team. Also included are brief descriptions of a few selected forms of therapy, for example, physiotherapy, in hopes of clarifying the roles of different members of a health care team. Pathophysiology for the Health Professions
~ The appendices at the back of the textbook are intended to promote effective use of study time. They include:
~ A brief review of anatomical terms describing body cavities and planes with accompanying illustrations as well as basic body movements
~ Selected numerical conversions for temperature, weights, and volumes
~ Lists of anatomical terms and combining forms, common abbreviations, and acronyms; because of the broad scope of pathophysiology, a medical dictionary is a useful adjunct for any student in the health-related professions Pathophysiology for the Health Professions
~ A brief description with illustrations of common diagnostic tests such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging
~ An example of a medical history, which can be modified to fit the needs of a particular professional group
~ A disease index, with a brief description and references to the relevant chapter
~ A drug index, identifying the principal action and references to the appropriate chapters
~ A list of additional resources; websites consist primarily of health care groups or professional organizations that will provide accurate information and are likely to persist. Additional specific journals and websites are available for individual professions. Pathophysiology for the Health Professions
~ A glossary, including significant terms used to describe diseases as well as key words
~ Accompanying this textbook and developed for it, the ancillaries available include: A study guide for students provides learning activities
such as complex test questions, matching exercises, crossword puzzles, diagrams to label, and other assignments Pathophysiology for the Health Professions