D. D. is a 66 year-old female suffering from shortness of breath. She smoked 2 packs a day until she quit 2 years ago. She has a history of bronchiolitis, hyperinflated lungs, pulmonary edema, and syncope. Her primary care practitioner suspects she also has pulmonary hypertension (PH). After examination, D. D. has a PAP of 35 mm Hg and mild CHF. Pathophysiology

For this week’s discussion, answer ALL questions below:

1.  What is the prevalence of COPD in the United States?  Use the most recent data available and provide a citation for your data.(2 pts)

2.  Do COPD sufferers die of respiratory causes or other causes? Why? (2 pts)

2.  What are the three different medication classes/types of bronchodilators, and how do they EACH function to alleviate the symptoms of COPD? (4 pts) Pathophysiology

3.  Is lung transplantation a solution for emphysema patients like D.D.? Why or why not? (2 pts)

Please need done within the next hour, its not paragraph require just questions answered.

Pathophysiology (a.k.a. physiopathology) – a convergence of pathology with physiology – is the study of the disordered physiological processes that cause, result from, or are otherwise associated with a disease or injury. Pathology is the medical discipline that describes conditions typically observed during a disease state, whereas physiology is the biological discipline that describes processes or mechanisms operating within an organism. Pathology describes the abnormal or undesired condition, whereas pathophysiology seeks to explain the functional changes that are occurring within an individual due to a disease or pathologic state. Pathophysiology


The 1918 pandemic triggered frenzied search for its cause, although most deaths were via lobar pneumonia, already attributed to pneumococcal invasion. In London, pathologist with the Ministry of Health, Fred Griffith in 1928 reported pneumococcal transformation from virulent to avirulent and between antigenic types —nearly a switch in species— challenging pneumonia’s specific causation. The laboratory of Rockefeller Institute’s Oswald Avery, America’s leading pneumococcal expert, was so troubled by the report that they refused to attempt repetition. Pathophysiology

When Avery was away on summer vacation, Martin Dawson, British-Canadian, convinced that anything from England must be correct, repeated Griffith’s results, then achieved transformation in vitro, too, opening it to precise investigation. Having returned, Avery kept a photo of Griffith on his desk while his researchers followed the trail. In 1944, Avery, Colin MacLeod, and Maclyn McCarty reported the transformation factor as DNA, widely doubted amid estimations that something must act with it. At the time of Griffith’s report, it was unrecognized that bacteria even had genes. Pathophysiology

The first genetics, Mendelian genetics, began at 1900, yet inheritance of Mendelian traits was localized to chromosomes by 1903, thus chromosomal genetics. Biochemistry emerged in the same decade. In the 1940s, most scientists viewed the cell as a “sack of chemicals” —a membrane containing only loose molecules in chaotic motion— and the only especial cell structures as chromosomes, which bacteria lack as such. Chromosomal DNA was presumed too simple, so genes were sought in chromosomal proteins. Yet in 1953, American biologist James Watson, British physicist Francis Crick, and British chemist Rosalind Franklin inferred DNA’s molecular structure —a double helix— and conjectured it to spell a code. In the early 1960s, Crick helped crack a genetic code in DNA, thus establishing molecular genetics. Pathophysiology

In the late 1930s, Rockefeller Foundation had spearheaded and funded the molecular biology research program —seeking fundamental explanation of organisms and life— led largely by physicist Max Delbrück at Caltech and Vanderbilt University. Yet the reality of organelles in cells was controversial amid unclear visualization with conventional light microscopy. Around 1940, largely via cancer research at Rockefeller Institute, cell biology emerged as a new discipline filling the vast gap between cytology and biochemistry by applying new technology —ultracentrifuge and electron microscope— to identify and deconstruct cell structures, functions, and mechanisms.  The two new sciences interlaced, cell and molecular biology. Pathophysiology

Mindful of Griffith and Avery, Joshua Lederberg confirmed bacterial conjugation —reported decades earlier but controversial— and was awarded the 1958 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.[14] At Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in Long Island, New York, Delbrück and Salvador Luria led the Phage Group —hosting Watson— discovering details of cell physiology by tracking changes to bacteria upon infection with their viruses, the process transduction. Lederberg led the opening of a genetics department at Stanford University’s medical school, and facilitated greater communication between biologists and medical department Pathophysiology

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