Primary Prevention of Heart Disease/Cardiovascular Disease

Primary Prevention of Heart Disease/Cardiovascular Disease

Cardiovascular disease is one of the major causes of deaths globally. Heart disease is a collection of diseases that affect the heart. Under this spectrum, some diseases include blood vessel diseases like heart defects from birth (congenital heart defects), coronary artery disease, and heart rhythm conditions (arrhythmia), etc. Around 600,000 people die of cardiovascular disease in the US each year (WHO, 2017). It is considered as the biggest cause of death for both women and men. Coronary heart disease is the prevalent type heart disease, claiming around 370,000 lives every year. Each year, around 750,000 Americans develop heart attack (Allender, Peto & Scarborough, 2017). Around 42% of those diagnosed with heart disease are between ages 25-38. Smoking, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure are key risk factors that increases the risk of contracting heart disease. Primary Prevention of Heart Disease/Cardiovascular Disease

In my county, Middlesex, New jersey despite an 11% decline between 2010 (174.4/100,000) and 2014 (155.2/100,000) and a top 25% statewide ranking, deaths due to heart disease perform lower than the Healthy People 2020 target (108.8/100,000) by 42.6%. The 2014 Middlesex County mortality rate due to heart disease (155.2/100,000) is 6.2% lower than Statewide (165.4/100,000) and is similar to neighboring Union and Monmouth Counties. Across all race/ethnicities, the Middlesex County death rate for heart disease improves from 2010 through 2014. In 2014, the Middlesex County heart disease mortality rate for Whites (176.2/100,000) is similar to New Jersey (173.4/100,000). Within the County, Whites have the highest heart disease mortality rate as compared to statewide statistics in which Blacks (191.2/100,000) have the highest rate. Between 2009 and 2015, Middlesex County adults who are told they have high blood pressure increased from 27.5% to 29.2% which exceeds the Healthy People 2020 target (26.9%) for adults with high blood pressure (Hackensack Meridian Health, 2017). Primary Prevention of Heart Disease/Cardiovascular Disease

Nursing Diagnosis:

Deficient knowledge regarding heart disease related to incomplete information as evidenced by request for information/verbalization of concerns and misconception.

Readiness for Learning: Identify the factors that would indicate the readiness to learn for the target aggregate. Include emotional and experiential readiness to learn.

One of the signs that would show eagerness to learn is their attendance. Additionally, their eagerness to learn will be seen from how they include their feeling towards preventing this disease and its risk factors. Their involvement in the learning process will tell a lot. Primary Prevention of Heart Disease/Cardiovascular Disease

Learning Theory to Be Utilized: Explain how the theory will be applied.

Teach-back theory will be the most appropriate since it narrows down the communication gap between the teacher and the patients. Teaching materials will be designed in simple languages without medical jargon. I will request the audience to repeat what they have understood in the simplest form the can.

Goal: Healthy People 2020 (HP2020) objective(s) utilized as the goal for the teaching. Include the appropriate objective number and rationale for using the selected HP2020 objective (use at least one objective from one of the 24 focus areas). If an HP2020 objective does not support your teaching, explain how your teaching applies to one of the two overarching HP2020 goals.

A Healthy People 2020 objective  is to reduce CHD deaths from 129.2 deaths per 100,000 population to 103.4 deaths per 100,000 population (American’s health ranking, 2018). Primary Prevention of Heart Disease/Cardiovascular Disease

My aim is to improve cardiovascular health and quality of life through prevention, detection, and treatment of risk factors for heart attack and stroke; early identification and treatment of heart attacks and strokes; prevention of repeat cardiovascular events; and reduction in deaths from cardiovascular disease by educating the adherence of the HP2020 objectives of reducing CHD deaths from 129.2 deaths per 100,000 population to 103.4 deaths per 100,000 population (Department of Health and Human Services, 2014).

How Does This HP2020 Objective Relate to Alma Ata’s Health for All Global Initiatives

The HP2020 objective is related to Alma Ata’s Healthy for All Global Initiatives since it supports the aim of increasing life expectancy of the people. Cardiovascular disease is a condition that kills several people in a year. It can be difficult and expensive to manage if not diagnosed earlier and treated. Prevention is therefore a key aspect to consider to help reduce the high cases of cardiovascular diseases. Primary Prevention of Heart Disease/Cardiovascular Disease

Develop Behavioral Objectives (Including Domains), Content, and Strategies/Methods:

Behavioral Objective and Domain


Content Strategies/Methods

(label and describe)


1. They would be able to distinguish the effects of cardiovascular disease


1. If left untreated, cardiovascular disease can lead to heart failure, heart attack, stroke, aneurysm, or sudden cardiac arrest 1. The powerPoint will describe the effects of cardiovascular disease and other complications. Before the presentation, I will provide the audience with snacks and fruits.
2. They will understand how to reduce the risk of contracting cardiovascular disease


2. General view of cardiovascular diseases.

Regular exercise will help reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and obesity. Primary Prevention of Heart Disease/Cardiovascular Disease

2. The pamphlets display the duration of exercise recommended for individuals. Also, have the audience raise their hands to say what they know regarding heart disease before providing an overview of the disease
3. The audience will learn about the risk factors of cardiovascular disease. They will learn about why some people are at high risk than others.


3. Provide an overview of some risk factors such as age, sex, family history, smoking, poor diet, high blood pressure, obesity, diabetes, physical inactivity, stress, poor hygiene, among others 3. The cardiovascular risk factors would be presented in a manner that establishes what the audience already know about it and present the information in a way that would be educative and influential to them.
1. They will be educated on better dietary and lifestyle choices required to maintain a healthy lifestyle


4. Smoking, controlling blood pressure, diabetes and high cholesterol, regular exercise, maintaining healthy weight, reducing and managing stress, and good hygiene will be a focus of the conversation. 4. General preventive measures will be provided to help the audience stay away from cardiovascular diseases.

Creativity: How was creativity applied in the teaching methods/strategies?

The audience will be fully engaged through a questions and answer method from the start of the presentation to end. We would start by telling stories regarding their daily activities like physical exercise, diet components, etc. This is meant to improve the commitment and interest of the audience in the education program. Audio-visual teaching approach will also be used. Primary Prevention of Heart Disease/Cardiovascular Disease


Planned Evaluation of Objectives (Outcome Evaluation): Describe what you will measure for each objective and how.

1. I will ask questions at different stages of the presentation to assess whether the audience are learning what they are been taught regarding cardiovascular diseases.

2. I will evaluate the willingness of the audience to change their lifestyle and diet to incorporate the preventive measures relevant for this condition.

3. Closely monitor the signs and symptoms of the young adults and identify any alarm of cardiovascular disease and offer necessary advice and help. Primary Prevention of Heart Disease/Cardiovascular Disease

4. Encourage the audience to understand the common causes of cardiovascular disease such as high blood pressure, diabetes, smoking, coronary artery diseases, stress, among others.

Planned Evaluation of Goal: Describe how and when you could evaluate the overall effectiveness of your teaching plan.

The overall effectiveness of the teaching plan can be evaluated at the end of the presentation by asking some questions to the audience to determine the success of the teaching program. Additionally, I will organize a visit after a period of three months to establish whether they are taking what the learned serious e.g. change of lifestyle, diet, among others. Primary Prevention of Heart Disease/Cardiovascular Disease

Planned Evaluation of Lesson and Teacher (Process Evaluation):

A short form of evaluation will be done by arranging the audience in groups and providing them with points to consider when answering the questions. The groups can be given different topics of discussion regarding cardiovascular disease. For instance, one group can be told discuss the causes of the diseases while others can discuss it’s the risks, complications, effects, and prevention measures based on the information they have learned from the teaching. Long term evaluation will be made based on how they respond to the teaching. I will ask them to keep a journal of their daily physical activities, nutrition, medication, and doctor’s visit to see if they are making effort of preventing cardiovascular diseases. Primary Prevention of Heart Disease/Cardiovascular Disease

Barriers: What are potential barriers that may arise during teaching and how will those be handled?

One of the main barrier that could present itself is language barrier. The community has a diverse population, comprising people from different cultures and language backgrounds. Some of them may not understand English. In this case, having someone to translate will help the audience much better. Additionally, busy schedule among the youths can be a barrier because it may force some of them not to attend to the teaching, even on weekend days.

Therapeutic Communication

4.2 Communicate therapeutically with patients.

How will you begin your presentation and capture the interest of your audience? Describe the type of activity you will use with your audience to exhibit active listening? Describe how you applied active listening in tailoring your presentation to your audience? How will you conclude your presentation? What nonverbal communication techniques will you employ?

I will start the presentation by introducing myself and explain why I want to talk about the topic and then thank the audience for finding time to attend the session amid busy schedule. I will involve the audience by asking them what they know regarding cardiovascular diseases. As the presentation ends, I would request one person already diagnosed with heart disease to give his/her experience with the disease, how he manages, and even offer advice. As the young adults listen to one another, they get an actual picture of how to change their lifestyle and make effort of preventing the disease. Primary Prevention of Heart Disease/Cardiovascular Disease

The presentation will be an interaction process through question-answer approach. Some non-verbal cues that will be used include eye contact, body movement, and hand gestures to send certain messages or explain a point, and charts and images for clarifications.


World Health Organization (2017). Prevention of cardiovascular disease. World Health Organization.

Allender S, Peto V, Scarborough P et al. (2017). Coronary heart disease statistics 2017 edition. London: British Heart Foundation

Department of Health and Human Services (2014). Heart disease and stroke. Retrieved November 10, 2019, from Primary Prevention of Heart Disease/Cardiovascular Disease

Hackensack Meridian Health (2017). Community health needs assessment. Retrieved from

American’s health ranking (2018). Public health impact: heart disease. Retrieved from https:// HYPERLINK “” \n _blank Primary Prevention of Heart Disease/Cardiovascular Disease

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