Lucy Jane Hood, RN, PhD Professor and Department Chair, Pre-Licensure Nursing Education MidAmerica Nazarene University Olathe, Kansas

Professor Emeritus Saint Luke’s College of Health Sciences Kansas City, Missouri

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Hood, Lucy J., author. Title: Leddy & Pepper’s professional nursing / Lucy Jane Hood. Other titles: Leddy & Pepper’s conceptual bases of professional nursing |

Leddy and Pepper’s professional nursing | Professional nursing Description: Ninth edition. | Philadelphia : Wolters Kluwer, [2018] | PROFESSIONAL NURSING

Preceded by Leddy & Pepper’s conceptual bases of professional nursing / Lucy Jane Hood. Edition 8. 2014. | Includes bibliographical references and index.

Identifiers: LCCN 2017020451 | ISBN 9781496351364 Subjects: | MESH: Nursing Theory | Nursing–trends Classification: LCC RT41 | NLM WY 86 | DDC 610.73–dc23 LC record available at

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This work is no substitute for individual patient assessment based upon healthcare professionals’ examination of each patient and consideration of, among other things, age, weight, gender, current or prior medical conditions, medication history, laboratory data and other factors unique to the patient. The publisher does not provide medical advice or guidance and this work is merely a reference tool. Healthcare professionals, and not the publisher, are solely responsible for the use of this work including all medical judgments and for any resulting diagnosis and treatments. PROFESSIONAL NURSING

Given continuous, rapid advances in medical science and health information, independent professional verification of medical diagnoses, indications, appropriate pharmaceutical selections and dosages, and treatment options should be made and healthcare professionals should consult a variety of sources. When prescribing medication, healthcare professionals are advised to consult the product information sheet (the manufacturer’s package insert) accompanying each drug to verify, among other things, conditions of use, warnings and side effects and identify any changes in dosage schedule or contraindications, particularly if the medication to be administered is new, infrequently used or has a narrow therapeutic range. To the maximum extent permitted under applicable law, no responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property, as a matter of products liability, negligence law or otherwise, or from any reference to or use by any person of this work. PROFESSIONAL NURSING 3



To all professional nurses who have a passion for nursing that enables them to share their values, beliefs, and skills to make differences in the lives of others and to shape the nursing profession. To Dr. Susan Leddy and Dr. Mae Pepper, who saw the need for a textbook to meet the needs of registered nurses who were continuing their education. To all the readers of this text who have the courage to take the risk of returning to school or pursuing a professional nursing career. To the following persons whose actions, values, and beliefs enabled me to live out my dream of being a professional nurse: my parents, Bob and Helen Chamberlin; Mary Belle Hickey, RN, my first nurse manager, who always challenged me to be the best possible nurse and gave me the confidence to pursue higher education; my dear mentor, Dr. Susan Leddy, professor of nursing who showed me the essence of nursing scholarship; and my loving husband, Michael, who selflessly gives me the time, support, and humor to live out my dreams. PROFESSIONAL NURSING




In Memory

J. Mae Pepper January 18, 1936–March 19, 1997 For 20 years, Mae was Susan Leddy’s colleague, coauthor, mentor, and friend. In 1977, Mae joined the faculty at Mercy College in Dobbs Ferry, New York. Mae’s previous teaching experience at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, New York University, and Bronx Community College, as well as her vision, wisdom, and dedication, was crucial to the development and accreditation of the new baccalaureate program for registered nurses and to the subsequent development of the first master’s program at the college. PROFESSIONAL NURSING

Mae held the position of Chairperson of the Nursing program from 1981 until her sudden death in March 1997 from a ruptured aortic aneurysm. Although she talked for years about leaving administration in order to do more scholarly work, she continued to serve as Chair out of a sense of duty and responsibility. She was devoted to the students and faculty, and very conscientious in her service to the College and many civic and professional organizations. PROFESSIONAL NURSING

Mae found time to read voraciously, listen to music, care for animals, and to enjoy outdoor white-water rafting, camping, and bird watching. She loved her garden, was a careful craftsperson in her furniture refinishing, and liked to go to garage sales and flea markets looking for collectibles. Mae had a good sense of humor and loved a good time. Devoted to her friends and family, she willingly gave time and attention to anyone who asked. She was a great listener, and her counsel was always wise and kind. Mae lived her belief in mutuality, genuineness, and respect for others.


Susan Kun Leddy February 23, 1939–February 23, 2007 For 14 years, Susan was my mentor and friend. We met in 1993 when I became a doctoral student at Widener University. Susan had a long distinguished career in nursing education. She set high academic standards for herself and also expected her students to attain them. Her favorite question posed to us was “So what?” thereby forcing us to verify the significance of what we said or wrote.

Susan earned a Bachelor of Science nursing degree from Skidmore College in New York in 1960. In 1965, she completed a master of science in nursing degree from Boston University. She completed a doctor of philosophy degree in 1973 at New York University. Never wanting to stop learning, she did postdoctoral work at Harvard University in 1985 and the University of Pennsylvania from 1996 to 1998. PROFESSIONAL NURSING

During her first 4 years as a nurse educator, Susan taught in diploma schools and taught in the baccalaureate program at Columbia University before completing her doctoral studies. She and three other faculties founded the RN-BSN program at Pace University. In 1976, she was asked to do a feasibility study and generate a proposal to the state of New York to develop a new RN-to-BSN nursing program at Mercy College. As program chair, Susan and Mae Pepper both opened the program in 1977. The two of them realized the need for a textbook to meet the needs of registered nurses returning to school for baccalaureate education and co-wrote Conceptual Bases for Nursing Practice that was first published in 1981. After a trip to Wyoming, Susan became enthralled with the mountains. She moved to the state and became the first dean of the School of Nursing at the University of Wyoming in 1981. In 1984, she was appointed as the Dean of the reconstituted College of Health Sciences at the University of Wyoming. In 1988, she returned to the East Coast as the Dean of the School of Nursing at Widener University in Chester, Pennsylvania until 1993 when she gave up her administrative position to assume teaching responsibilities mainly in the doctoral program PROFESSIONAL NURSING

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