The difference between a nursing practice problem and a medical practice problem

The difference between a nursing practice problem and a medical practice problem

Although nursing practice problems and medical practice problems are related in that they are used for medicine, there are differences between the two. A nursing practice problem is an issue encountered during nursing practice, such as during a patient assessment, related to the patient’s response to a health problem they are experiencing. There are numerous considerations to the nursing practice problems (Fuller, 1982). This ranges from the patient’s signs and symptoms to an illness to their difficulties in completing the activities of daily living due to a fractured extremity. This is due to nursing care involves the entire individual, family or community. Fuller, (1982) states that nursing practice problems, “…deal with modalities of patient care such as support, comfort, prevention of trauma, promotion of recovery, health screening, appraisal and/or assessment, health education, and coordination of health care.” The difference between a nursing practice problem and a medical practice problem

A medical practice problem is concerned with a medical condition or disease. It identifies a condition, searches for causes, establishes a prognosis, and prescribes a treatment for the condition (Chiffi & Zanotti, 2015).

Chiffi and Zanotti (2015) state, “In conclusion, medical and nursing diagnoses have different goals: a medical diagnosis identifies a variation from a norm, while a nursing diagnosis should judge the existence of a potential for enhancing self-care.” The difference between a nursing practice problem and a medical practice problem

Consider a patient with a fractured wrist. The physician will set the fracture and prescribe pain medication. These are examples of medical practice problems. The nurse will review the aftercare and medication instructions with the patient. The nurse will also review care of the splint and possibly arrange a visiting RN to help with activities of daily living.

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The PICOT question is the first step in establishing or improving evidence-based practice with the goal of solving problems with patients. “Nurses use EBP to provide patients with safe, quality care and to improve outcomes” (Helbig, 2018). The PICOT is based on a nursing practice problem because it is designed to improve patient care. An example of using PICOT for evidence-based practice would be studying the frequency of oral care with the goal of reducing the incidence of ventilator associated pneumonias. It is not designed for disease research.

Using 200-300 words APA format with references to support discussion The difference between a nursing practice problem and a medical practice problem

The difference between a nursing and medical problem is that: a nursing problem is one that is noted during nursing assessments often from a condition or disease of a patient. It ranges from the care needs of the patient from the time they step foot in the healthcare environment, during the doctor’s diagnosis and to the assessment of patient needs
A medical diagnosis deals with disease or medical condition. A nursing diagnosis deals with human response to actual or potential health problems and life processes.  For example, a medical diagnosis of Cerebrovascular Attack (CVA or Stroke) provides information about the patient’s pathology. The complimentary nursing diagnoses of Impaired verbal communication, risk for falls, interrupted family processes and powerlessness provide a more holistic understanding of the impact of that stroke on this particular patient and his family – they also direct nursing interventions to obtain patient-specific outcomes. The difference between a nursing practice problem and a medical practice problem

Here is an example of a PICOT Question

P (population):  For patients age 65 and older at the ABC Primary Care Clinic,

I (intervention):  does implementing the Beers Criteria screening tool,

C (comparison):  compared to current practice,

O (outcome):  reduce the number of potentially inappropriate medications (polypharmacy),

T (time):  within one month. The difference between a nursing practice problem and a medical practice problem

This PICOT identifies a clinical practice problem (polypharmacy in the elderly). The population identifies patients age 65 and older (this is the typical age referenced in current literature).  The Beers Criteria is a well-supported evidence-based intervention for which numerous studies have been based.  You could also use established guidelines by agencies (CDC, WHO, AHA, etc.).  The comparison is that there is not currently a current practice or protocol in effect at the Primary Care Clinic.  The outcome is measurable.  In this example, you would be able to conduct a pre-intervention review of patient charts to establish who is polypharmacy (that you have perhaps identified as taking five or more prescription medications) per the medications listed on the Beers Criteria.  Then you would implement the screening over a period of weeks.  After that, you would conduct a post-intervention patient chart review to identify the reduction in prescription medications.  You would then have measurable values… the pre- and post-intervention numbers.  Evaluation must be based on measurable outcomes The difference between a nursing practice problem and a medical practice problem.

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